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This handbook is designed to provide guidance in detecting, identifying, assessing, and measuring environmental and related ecological effects. It offers an overview of the implications of economic development projects for natural resources, environmental systems, public and occupational health, and human ecology. The handbook is organized as follows: Chapter 1 describes the World Bank's policy of "sustainable development," the project cycle and opportunities for environmental input into that cycle, and the role of cost-benefit assessments and the difficulties of quantifying the benefits of environmental protection measures. Chapter 2 examines four environmental problems-air pollution, water pollution, soil waste disposal, and noise pollution-caused primarily by industrial and energy-related development project. Chapter 3 focuses on direct and indirect health risks caused by environmental problems, and provides a comprehensive plan to combat these impacts. Chapter 4 discusses some possible adverse effects of tropical agricultural development and ways to mitigate them. Chapter 5 provides a framework for analyzing environmental impacts associated with a wide variety of industrial development projects in developing nations. Problems related to project design, site selection, and project operations are considered as are appropriate measures to alleviate them. Chapter 6 first discusses the environmental damage and possible mitigating measures associated with exploring, mining, and developing fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal. It then looks at the effects of electric power projects and addresses ways to control the impacts of fossil-fuel generating plants, large-scale hydroelectric projects, and renewable sources of energy. The last chapter discusses the planning tools available for managing urban and regional development.